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{\rtf1\ansi {\colortbl;\red0\green0\blue0;\red0\green0\blue255;\red0\green255\blue255;\red0\green255\blue0;\red255\green0\blue255;\red255\green0\blue0;\red255\green255\blue0;\red255\green255\blue255;}{\fonttbl{\f0\froman\cpg0\fcharset0 Times New Roman;}{\f1\fswiss\cpg0\fcharset0 Arial;}{\f2\froman\cpg1252\fcharset0 Times New Roman;}{\f3\fswiss\cpg1252\fcharset0 Arial;}{\f4\froman\cpg1251\fcharset204 Times New Roman;}{\f5\fswiss\cpg1251\fcharset204 Arial;}{\f6\froman\cpg1250\fcharset238 Times New Roman;}{\f7\fswiss\cpg1250\fcharset238 Arial;}{\f8\froman\cpg1257\fcharset186 Times New Roman;}{\f9\fswiss\cpg1257\fcharset186 Arial;}{\f10\froman\cpg1254\fcharset162 Times New Roman;}{\f11\fswiss\cpg1254\fcharset162 Arial;}{\f12\froman\cpg1253\fcharset161 Times New Roman;}{\f13\fswiss\cpg1253\fcharset161 Arial;}{\f14\froman\cpg1255\fcharset177 Times New Roman;}{\f15\fswiss\cpg1255\fcharset177 Arial;}}{\stylesheet {\sbasedon222\f2\fs20 Normal;}}\paperw12240\paperh15840\margl2957\margr3494\margt1440\margb720 \sectd \sbknone\pgwsxn12240\pghsxn15840\marglsxn2957\margrsxn3494\margtsxn1440\margbsxn720\cols1\colsx60 \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li0\fi0\ri0\sb0\sa0\tx1732 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw-9\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs21 8o{\charscalex100\expndtw0\tab }\expndtw7 JUSTICE: TAXATION}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\qj\li7\fi0\ri108\sb223\sa0\sl-238\slmult0 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw3\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs24 mentions partners in trade and agriculture (II, 2,65). \expndtw9 Similarly, Narada and Brihaspati refer to them, and \expndtw12 how their shares were to be determined. The law-\expndtw3 books further show that loans were advanced, and _the \expndtw7 interests on them varied from fifteen per cent to sixty \expndtw3 per cent according to the caste of the debtor. Usury is, \expndtw6 however, generally discouraged; a Brahman specially \expndtw13 was not expected to charge a high rate of interest.\super 1 \nosupersub\expndtw3 If a debt could not be cleared, a Sudra-debtor did some \expndtw12 kind of labour in lieu of it. To enforce payment of \expndtw7 debt, the practice of sitting and fasting unto death in \expndtw11 front of the debtor's house was also sometimes re\-\expndtw8 sorted to.}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li65\fi0\ri0\sb223\sa0 \f2\fs20{\b0\i\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw-2\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs23 Taxation}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\qj\li58\fi439\ri25\sb151\sa0\sl-234\slmult0 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw12\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs24 Taxes were intended to be light and equitable, \expndtw10 The king is advised not to put too great a burden on \expndtw4 the people, nor to resort to unrighteous and covetous \expndtw1 methods. The \i Mabdbhdrata, \i0 for instance, exhorts him to \expndtw2 gather taxes from his subjects like a bee sucking honey \expndtw9 from flowers, or a calf drawing milk from the udders \expndtw6 of the cow.\super 2\nosupersub  The great law-giver, Manu, allows a king \expndtw5 to take from merchants one-fiftieth part of their profits \expndtw4 in cattle and gold, and one-sixth, one-eighth, and one-twelfth of agricultural produce such as rice etc.. .(VII, \expndtw1 130); and also one-sixth of the profits in \i glee, \i0 honey, \expndtw0 perfumes, vegetables, fruits, roots, etc. (VII, 131, 132), \expndtw7 Artisans, smiths, and labourers paid taxes in the form \expndtw10 of a day's labour monthly (VII, 138). The \i Srotrtjas \i0\expndtw3 were, however, exempted from taxes (VII, 133). Others \expndtw0 enjoying this immunity were the blind, the deaf, the lame, \expndtw3 the aged, and those who helped the \i Srotnyas \i0 (VII, 394)-\expndtw5 in conclusion, we may add that among other important}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li122\fi353\ri0\sb266\sa0\sl-137\slmult0\tx3874 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw0\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs21 i-Nfaada altogether forbids' Brahmans to practise money-lend-\line \charscalex92\expndtw-5 wag \i \\Wetraaa$mnti\sub t\nosupersub  \i0 I, i n).{\charscalex100\expndtw0\tab }\super\expndtw0 l}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li1573\fi0\ri0\sb32\sa0 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex92\expndtw7\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs21 Ch. LXXXVm, 4-8.}\par }